Road accident is the testmyprep.com global tragedy with ever-raising development. In Malaysia, it signifies a significant public problem because of the high number of victims involved plus the seriousness of the results for the victim themselves and to their families aswell. There are several factors that can donate to the road accidents. Some researchers have made more than a few researches and agreed that the important factors that adding to the street accidents is due to the inclement weather, condition of road, individual behavior when driving, condition of the vehicle and the leniency of regulations enforcement.
Relating to the previous researches, the target of our research is to identify the trend of highway mishaps in Shah Alam and the factors that contributing to the mishaps. Besides that, the study also targets the strategies and ways to reduce the rate of road accidents in Shah Alam. The study will be carried out in Shah Alam that your respondents are among the street users including pedestrians, motorcyclists, car drivers and etc.
2.2 Contributing Factors
2.2.1 Bad Weather
According to a written report from the Institute for Road Safety Exploration (SWOV) in Netherland, the term weather can be described as the state of ambiance in term of air flow pressure, heat, humidity, clouds, wind and precipitation. The current weather conditions will affect the car accident rates and exposure to the traffic hazards. A layer of water on the road surface because of rain could cause the vehicles to reduce contact with the street surface and to skid.
Besides that, Ellinghaus (1983) has explained that the thing carried because of the good wind, fallen trees and busted branches can also cause the traffic disturbance. Gusts of wind can push the high vehicles such as for example busses and vans particularly when they are on the bridges.
A research from Saudi Arabia (Al-Ghamdi, 2009) reports the quantity of crash being higher during the fog when compared to other the weather. The crash happened as a result of the limited presence during driving because of the fog. In a fog, the droplets of normal water are so little and light that they remain floating in the atmosphere. This will result in limited visibility to the drivers as the light is definitely diffused by the fog droplets.
As a result of bad weather, road surfaces could become slippery or slick. Accumulation of water, slush, ice and snow can present hazards to motorists. The manner in which other drivers respond to the weather, whether via an extreme excess of caution or a disregard of the hazards posed by the weather conditions, can also donate to the probability of an accident. When weather conditions render driving unsafe, motorists should attempt to find a safe spot to get off the road and wait for the weather to improve. For anyone who is driving at the same time of year when you are likely to own your windshield splattered with filthy normal water, mud, slush, or salt, before driving make certain you have a good way to obtain windshield solvent.
In Malaysia, A lot of the investigated cases occurred during fine weather conditions. The proportion of investigated cases during fine climate for 2008 is over presented, with more than 70%, and is considerably higher than the ones that occurred in any other the weather, especially in 2009 2009 and 2010. Predicated on MIROS the data with regards to lighting condition show that for the full total number of investigated conditions from 2007 through 2010, crashes that occurred during daylight, when it is safe to say that visibility isn’t a major concern. However, crashes during dark state and without lighting, which is related to the said issue, are likewise significant and can be found in second place after daylight in all four years when it comes to the quantity of investigated cases.
Through record by MIROS, the KSI and fatality indexes according to the environmental pieces of the crashes, specifically the vicinity area, weather conditions and lighting conditions. In conditions of the environmental components of the crashes, fatality index is certainly recorded highest for crashes taking place at agricultural areas (2.86), during drizzling condition (4.84) and when the surrounding is dark without any lighting (2.67). Meanwhile, KSI index is highest for crashes that happened at agricultural areas (3.97), during rainy day (7.56), and during dawn or dusk (7.44). This shows that bad condition of conditions and surrounding may influence the driver view which can make an increased tendency of accident to occur during that particular situation.
2.2.2 Driving attitude
Whilst commercial cars have usually been found to own huge accident involvement rates, only one commercial driver training curriculum has been identified so far in this Asia place. Within the two year insight in Pakistan funded by DFID in the early 1980s, a bi weekly bus driver re-training course was provided. Bus generating standards are found before and after the course and while bus driving benchmarks showed improvement when motorists knew they were being observed, this improvement didn’t carry to other situations. This demonstrated the difference between driving a vehicle skill and driving behavior and the necessity of enforcement and incentive schemes to encourage good driving standards.
Surveys in driver know-how and driver behavior were undertaken in a number of countries worldwide including Pakistan, Indonesia, Thailand and Sri Lanka. Driver behavior was assessed at pedestrian crossing, traffic signals and concern junctions. As a follow up driver expertise surveys were executed in Pakistan and Thailand and both these studies have been published as separate Transfer Research Laboratory (TRL) studies.
While the Central Highway Research Institute (CRRI) likewise worked on the area of private understanding with motorists surveyed on signal comprehension and traffic recognition, the CRRI has put in much effort in creating a driver reflexes testing program (DRTS) which seeks to eradicate human bias and contains psycho physical checks. Work in this region has continued over the past 10 years with a few DRTS devices in use in India.
Human errors play a significant role in adding to the increasing numbers of accident rates. Persons keen to ignore this factor as they feel they can handle the situation and avoid accidents. There are plenty of types of human errors during driving such as for example extreme speeding and deviant habit, taking liquor during driving and didn’t obey the rules and regulations of the street. All of these can be categorized as the risky driving attitudes which might cause road accidents.
Many of accidents which were reported are due to human errors. According to Nasasira (2009), there are about 80% of the street injuries reported in Uganda are related to the attitude and tendencies of the motorists. This data demonstrates the driving attitude may be the major reason behind road accidents.
According to Sabey and Taylor (1980), 95% of the accidents caused by the human factors. Driving attitude was determined as the utmost central of these factors. Besides that, exploration by Jashua and Garber (1992) also stated that the most typical accident type have resulted from motorists’ faults.
Driving attitudes likewise incorporate the behavior to increased speeding. Vehicle speed is often credited as being an essential cause and contributory component of road crashes. This behavior may cause danger not only for the driver himself but also for other drivers. Most drivers tend to speed exceed the limit fixed by the government. For instance, the National Speed Limits can be 90km/h but drivers tend to speed surpass the limit which may cause threat to themselves and others.
According to Solomon (1964), Munden (1967) and Bohlin (1967), all claimed that the likelihood of serious injury or loss of life are greater at high impact speeds. This shows that the impact of high speeding might not exactly only cause accident but could also cause a serious injury and death.
2.2.3 Road Condition
Geometric design standards are often taken from motorized countries and thus are not always suitable given the occurrence of pedestrians and various other vulnerable motorists and non-motorised vehicles in the road traffic stream. There’s been much effort in safety engineering study to minimise the chance of mishaps and DFID sponsored the creation and publication of Towards Safer Roads (TSR) that was the first key manual to handle safety engineering and planning in producing countries. TSR also presented the practice of security audits (a standardized process of checking the safety considerations of road tasks from the feasibility stage through to final construction and procedure). Formal safety audits also have begun to be utilized recently in Nepal, Malaysia, Fiji and a number of other developing countries incorporating Bangladesh.
Identifying safe practices impacts of geometric design modifications was a research concentrate in PNG and was lately reviewed for the latest release of the Highway Design and style and Maintenance Programme (HDM4). Recent exploration funded by Sweroad included the creation of a traffic basic safety effects catalogue to include the various
findings of the affect of geometric design and style and visitors control features on highway accidents and accident rates.
Several jobs both on implementation and the study side have centered on traffic engineering and visitors management issues with applied road safety rewards. For example, Australian Aid tasks in Papua New Guinea and Western Samoa follow this structure as does the past analysis in CRRI on roadside creation and road signs. The study recently started on the design and implementation problems of median installation for example happen to be illustrative of the types of study being undertaken in this area.
In Malaysia, it was reported that lots of of the circumstances of highway collision involve the vehicle leaving the roadway and hits the fixed things along the roadside such as the trees and guardrails. This may cause by the slippery road because of the rain and even due to the poorly designed and constructed roads.
Most of the roads in Malaysia will be pavement designed. In pavement design, there are various characteristics that need to be considered such as for example skid resistance and the texture depth. These features will determine the health of the road whether it is risky or not. According to Davis (2001), the wetness on the pavement surface area may prevent vehicle tires from making enough contact with the road surface. This will boost the level of slippery on the highway which might cause road accident.
2.2.4 Vehicles condition
Vehicles are one of the factors which can donate to the road accidents. That is because the vehicle that people ride is a medium for us that place us in the street and if the vehicles itself are not in a good shape and condition, the tendency for the accident to occur is much more likely compare to a very well manage vehicle condition.
A well-designed and well-maintained vehicle, with great brakes, tires and well-adjusted suspension could be more controllable within an emergency and thus be better equipped in order to avoid collisions. Based on the statistics which were produced by MIROS, during 2007-2010, the brake defects in car have recorded 20 cases while tires defect have recorded 14 cases. So, that is why some mandatory car inspection schemes include lab tests for a few aspects of roadworthiness have already been execute by the JPJ in order to be sure that the vehicles that will be used are in an excellent condition,
The design of cars has also evolved to improve cover after collision, both for car or truck occupants and for all those outside of the automobile. For example, in present day car, a lot of safety features have already been include wants Anti-lock braking system (Ab muscles) to avoid skidding enabling the driver to stay in control. The automobile stops quicker as there’s extra friction between the road and tires, traction control to prevents skidding while accelerating therefore the car can easily escape a dangerous circumstance and safeness cage to strengthens the cabin section to protect people in a roll-over crash. Much of this function was led by automotive industry competition and technological innovation.
Some crash types tend to have much more serious consequences, Rollovers have become more common in recent years, perhaps because of increased acceptance of taller SUVs, persons carriers, and minivans, that have a higher center of gravity than standard passenger automobiles. Rollovers could be fatal, particularly if the occupants are ejected because these were not wearing seat belts (83% of ejections during rollovers were fatal when the driver did not wear a seat belt, in comparison to 25% if they did). After a new style of Mercedes Benz notoriously failed a ‘moose evaluation’ (sudden swerving in order to avoid an obstacle), some companies enhance suspension using balance control associated with an anti-lock braking program to reduce the probability of rollover. After retrofitting these devices to its versions in 1999-2000, Mercedes saw its models involved in fewer crashes. Now about 40% of different US vehicles, typically the SUVs, vans and pickups that are more susceptible to rollover, are being generated with a lower centre of gravity and enhanced suspension with balance control associated with its anti-lock braking system to reduce the risk of rollover and fulfill US federal requirements that mandate anti-rollover technology by September 2011.
According to the study by Chin Shu Pei (2009), she’s stated that the partnership between the road surface and the kind of tire, tread pattern, tire pressure and tire state may affect the road surface friction and cause the automobiles to skid off the street. She also added that tires in poor condition won’t have satisfactory braking friction on any pavement area.
Motorcyclists have little protection other than their garments; this difference is normally reflected in the casualty statistics, where they are more than twice as more likely to suffer severely after a collision. In 2005 there have been 198,735 road crashes with 271,017 reported casualties on roads in the uk. This included 3,201 deaths (1.1%) and 28,954 serious injuries (10.7%) overall. Of the casualties 178,302 (66%) were car users and 24,824 (9%) had been motorcyclists, of whom 569 were killed (2.3%) and 5,939 seriously hurt (24%). In Malaysia, it really is recorded that 4,067 motorcyclists died in 2010 2010 by MIROS. This represents about 60 % of the 6,745 road fatalities. In 2008, 3,898 motorcyclists were killed out of a complete of 6,527 fatalities. Motorcyclist deaths normally accounted for 60 per cent of the total road fatalities in the last decade. MIROS road safety engineering and environment research director, Jamilah Mohd Marjan explained the spike in deaths was because of the rise of the number of riders.
As we are able to see in the another country where both Transport Exploration Laboratory (TRL) in UK and Indian Institute of Technology (ITT) IN India own conducted a study into vehicle design and personal injury control. In Papua New Guinea the MAAP program identified many casualties happening in run-off accidents in wide open top pickups. Open top pickups certainly are a common public transport function and are often heavily packed with passengers in Papua New Guinea. TRL concluded research into vehicle design to minimize such injuries.
IIT contain modeled crash impacts of bus fronts and three wheeler motorized scooter taxis to regulate how https://testmyprep.com/lesson/how-to-write-a-good-persuasive-essay the design could be altered to lessen injury severity to pedestrians hit by buses and the Three Wheeler Scooter Taxi (TST) drivers, travellers and pedestrians in TST crashes. TSTs are located to come to be unsafe for all three end user groups (drivers, pedestrians and travellers at velocity impacts as low as 15 to 20 kilometers per hour). Minor modifications were found to generate a significant difference in the safety to all or any three user organizations in crashes up to speeds of 25 to 30 kilometers each hour.
IIT research likewise identifies structural weakness in bike helmet design. Earlier work had identified a majority of brain impacts and two steering wheel crashes to come to be sustained on the side of the head yet VIS standards didn’t include a side impact check. IIT devised and implemented a side impact test and when all helmets generally speaking were found to end up being inadequate in side affect, BIS amended the motorcycle helmet standards. Delhi Law enforcement have sponsored this study and soon after publicized the findings and distributed suggestions for buyers and the relative ratings of the several helmets.
Around once that ITT was learning the relative security of motorbike helmets in Delhi, Central Street Analysis Institute (CRRI) was also studying the utilization of motorcycle helmets and conducting judgment surveys on the use of motorcycle helmets in a number of metropolitan cities where motorbike helmet utilization was mandatory. These analyses all helped to effect road safety coverage in India.
2.2.5 Leniency of the Law Enforcement
While most if not absolutely all countries in Asia and Pacific contain revised their street regulations before 15 years, little bilateral technical assistance appears to have been supplied in this sector nor does there seem to have already been local research effort in such countries despite many countries posting the same foundation for road regulations (The British AUTOMOBILE Code 1939). Tiny exchange of data and knowledge has occurred and visitors regulations contain generally been revised individually by each region. No regional manual provides been produced identical to such manuals that exist in Africa and additional parts of the world.
Traffic Police training programmes have already been produced by the Central Road Study Institute (CRRI) with sponsorship from the Ministry of Area Transportation. National workshops on traffic police training were likewise organised in 1992 and 93. Traffic police from 23 metropolitan metropolitan areas were trained prior to the job was discontinued. Ongoing concurrently was CRRI research study analysing the past a decade of traffic violations from Delhi covering 1980 to 1990. The analysis uncovered misguided priorities with administrative violations becoming enforced more frequently than the more threatening moving violations.
Highway patrolling was quite effective when it was created in Pakistan in the first 1980s as it discouraged overtaking and targeted street safety parking, both of which were known to donate to road injuries in Pakistan.